Current Mangrove Research Sites
Click on the marker to display more information about the site.
ABOUT THE PROJECT
This website presents the research projects of Dr. Marc Simard, Senior Scientist at the
Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The objective is to map coastal vegetation in 3D, estimate
above ground biomass and ecosystem productivity using radar interferometry, Lidar and
field data. This research was funded by NASA Land Cover Land Use Change (LCLUC) through
the Interdisciplinary Science program (2003-2006) and the ICEsat program (2007-2009).
Simard and his collaborators(1) used field and Lidar data to calibrate the radar
interferometric data and estimate canopy height. The field data was also used to derive
a relation between mean canopy height and biomass (Simard et al., 2006; 2007). If you are interested to obtain maps for Africa's Mangrove, click here AFRICAN MANGROVES
focusses on mangrove forests, however, we recently expanded the techniques
to Global mapping. Visit this link Global Vegetation
The web user can navigate through the Google Map interface to select a specific site and get access
to canopy height maps derived from SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission). Also, a new
Google map with the location of ICEsat/GLAS
(Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite/Geoscience Laser Altimeter System) footprints is shown.
By clicking on a footprint, the user can
see the ICEsat/GLAS lidar waveform.
An ICEsat/GLAS waveform applet provides the user with a multiple Gaussian curve fit and a canopy height profile model.
These are used to characterize the waveform and canopy. Although the applet automatically determines
ground location through the curve fits, the unsatisfied user can interactively locate the
ground and estimate canopy height with updated computations. The user can also select what
is shown on the waveform plots with an interactive menu "What to Graph". The user must ensure the waveforms are within the forest
before reaching any conclusions.
In addition, the applet uses an inversion model to estimate forest structure. An
estimate of tree density is given as a function of tree height (i.e. tree height
distribution within 1 hectare). The models used to compute the histogram distribution of trees and the productivity are based on mangrove models.
This forest structure is then used to estimate productivity at the footprint location
using the FORMAN model (Chen and Twilley, 1998).
Fatoyinbo, T.E. and Simard, M. (2011), "Mapping of Africa's mangrove forest extent, height and biomass
with ICEsat/GLAS and SRTM data fusion", International Journal of Remote Sensing, in print
Simard M, Fatoyinbo T.E., Pinto N (2009), "Mangrove Canopy 3D Structure and Ecosystem Productivity
Using Active Remote Sensing", book chapter In Remote Sensing of Coastal environments, Taylor and
Francis Group LLC, Yeqiao Wang ed.
Victor H. Rivera-Monroy, Robert R. Twilley, Stephen E. Davis, III, Daniel L. Childers, Marc Simard,Randolph Chambers, Rudolf Jaffe, Joseph N. Boyer, David T. Rudnick, Keqi Zhang, Edward Castaneda-Moya, Sharon Ewe, Rene M. Price, Carlos Coronado-Molina, Michael Ross, Thomas J. Smith, III,Beatrice Michot, Ehab Meselhe, William Nuttle, Tiffany Troxler, and Gregory, (2010), "The Role of the Everglades Mangrove Ecotone Region (EMER) in Regulating Nutrient Cycling and Wetland Productivity in South Florida" , Special issue of Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology,41(S1):1-37
Zhang K., Simard M., Ross M., Rivera-Monroy V. H., Houle P., Ruiz P., Twilley R. R., Whelan K.,
"Airborne Laser Scanning Quantification of Disturbances from Hurricanes and Lightning Strikes to
Mangrove Forests in Everglades National Park", USA. Sensors. 2008; 8(4):2262-2292.
Simard, M., Zhang, K., Rivera-Monroy, V.H., Ross, M., Ruiz, P., Castaneda-Moya, E.,
Rodriguez, E., Twilley, R. (2006). "Mapping mangrove height and estimate biomass in the
Everglades using SRTM elevation data". Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 72
Simard, M., Rivera-Monroy, V.H., José Ernesto Mancera-Pineda, Castaneda-Moya, E.,Twilley, R.,(2007),
"A Systematic Method for 3D Mapping of Mangrove Forests Based on Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Elevation Data, ICEsat/GLAS Waveforms and Field Data: Application to Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombia." Remote Sensing of the Environment,Vol 112/5 pp 2131-2144, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2007.10.012
Fatoyinbo, T., M. Simard, R. A. Washington-Allen, and H. H. Shugart (2008), Landscape-Scale Extent, Height, Biomass and Carbon Estimation of Mozambique's Mangrove Forests with Landsat ETM+ and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Elevation Data, Journal for Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 113, G02S06, doi:10.1029/2007JG000551
Chen, R. and Twilley, R.R., (1998). A gap dynamic model of mangrove forest development
along gradients of soil salinity and nutrient resources, Journal of Ecology, 86: 37-51.
Keqi Zhang, Mike Ross, Florida International University
Victor H. Rivera-Monroy, Louisiana State Universty
Special thanks to Colte C. Haines for the interactive website design (summer 2007).